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Git中的ssh和https及相关问题

 ·  ☕ 11 分钟

此文还需要整理

Git中SSH和HTTPS协议的使用

访问远程仓库时可以选择 SSH 或者 HTTPS 协议进行访问。

(比如,与gitlab 远程仓库进行进行安全认证可选择使用ssh或者https),两者的表现形式:

SSH  [email protected]:faner/test01.git
HTTPS  https://gitlab.com/faner/test01.git

当你选择HTTPS时,会看到它有下面的一段提示"Create a personal access token on your account to pull or push via Https” 简单的翻译一下就是"在您的帐户上创建个人访问令牌,以通过Https进行pull或push”,并且在你第一次将本地仓库push到远程仓库时会要求你输入gitlab的用户名和密码。

在一次错误中发现了这个问题:由于我的ssh的config文件出现配置错误,当我选择[email protected]:faner/test01.git时提示有有误,我就尝试使用了https的https://gitlab.com/faner/test01.git路径,之后就让我输入密码并成功连接。

从用户操作上来看,HTTPS需要用户输入远程仓库的用户名和密码,比如需要输入gitlab的帐号和密码;SSH无需输入用户和密码。

路径错误

错误内容:

$ git push -u origin --all
/c/Users/Fan/.ssh/config line 4: garbage(垃圾) at end of line; "Dean/.ssh/github_rsa.pub".
fatal: Could not read from remote repository.

Please make sure you have the correct access rights
and the repository exists.

错误原因是在我的Windows中,ssh配置文件中的路径/c/Users/Fan/.ssh/config包含空格,需要使用""包含路径,改成如下形式"/c/Users/Fan/.ssh/config"

尝试通过SSH进行身份验证时,您可能会看到以下错误消息 :

当尝试使用Git并通过SSH协议进行 clone, push,或 pull时,如果Bitbucket无法使用SSH agent提供的密钥进行身份验证,则可能会收到下面的某一条消息:

  • Permission denied (publickey)
  • No suitable response from remote
  • repository access denied

可能的原因:

  • 在Linux中,你不应该使用sudo进行上述操作,因为 ssh-agent 是在用户级别运行而非root级别运行。

  • 你的 公钥 并没有添加到服务器端。

  • 您的密钥未加载到ssh agent中 。(如果您的SSH代理不知道为Bitbucket提供密钥,则连接将失败。如果您最近重新启动了系统,则可能会遇到此问题。 )解决方法:

    • 检查相应的 ssh key 是否被加载:

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      # 该命令列出所有已加载的私钥
      ssh-add -l
      
      
    
  • 如果没有被加载,则使用下面的命令加载私钥

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    #后面可以同时跟多个私钥
    ssh-add ~/.ssh/<private_key_file>  
    
  • 如果提示 “Could not open a connection to your authentication agent.” 说明你的ssh agent并没有运行;使用下面的命令运行ssh agent,再使用ssh-add命令添加你的ssh key。

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    # macOS/Linux
    $ eval `ssh-agent`
      
    # Windows
    $ eval $(ssh-agent) 
    

    还有个注意点,就是不要同时运行多个 ssh agent,可通过任务管理器或 ps命令进行查看。

下面两个命令的区别:第一个是后台运行ssh-agent,第二个是。

eval $(ssh-agent) 
$ ssh-agent /bin/bash
# 或
$ ssh-agent bash

Permission denied (publickey)

之后遇到了第二个问题:Permission denied (publickey)

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[email protected] MINGW64 /d/新建文件夹/Test (master)
$ git push -u origin master
Warning: Permanently added the RSA host key for IP address '52.167.219.168' to the list of known hosts.
Enter passphrase for key 'C:/Users/Fan/.ssh/github.pub':
Permission denied (publickey).
fatal: Could not read from remote repository.

Please make sure you have the correct access rights
and the repository exists.

[email protected] MINGW64 /d/新建文件夹/Test (master)
$ ssh -T [email protected]
The authenticity of host 'github.com (13.250.177.223)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is SHA256:nThbg6kXUpJWGl7E1IGOCspRomTxdCARLviKw6E5SY8.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added 'github.com,13.250.177.223' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
Enter passphrase for key 'C:/Users/Fan/.ssh/github_rsa.pub':
Permission denied (publickey).

解决方法:

ssh准备连接远程服务器却遭提示” Permission denied (publickey) “, 这是由于您没有将公钥( publickey ) 添加到本地 ssh 环境造成的,或者是由于多日未进行ssh 登录操作,本地 publickey 失效造成的。我的mac os x 环境隔几天没有登录ssh 就会报 “Permission denied " 啦。只要 使用 ssh-add 命令再次添加一下公钥即可。 Permission denied (publickey). - CSDN博客

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# 这里需要是私钥
$ ssh-add ~/.ssh/id_rsa

Could not open a connection to your authentication agent.

但是当我执行ssh-add命令后又出现下面的问题:Could not open a connection to your authentication agent.

解决方法:git:could not open a connection to your authentication agent问题的解决(重新绑定私钥) - CSDN博客 执行如下命令即可:

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ssh-agent bash

然后在执行上面的 ssh-add命令。

由于我是直接将Linux中的.ssh文件夹复制到Windows下,并且在Git Bash中进行上述操作(ssh应该是安装git时git自带的),然后就出现了上面一系列的问题。

测试连接:

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$ ssh -T [email protected]

显示调试信息-v

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$ ssh -T -v [email protected]

ssh agent

ssh-agent是一种控制用来保存公钥身份验证所使用的私钥的程序,其实ssh-agent就是一个密钥管理器,运行ssh-agent以后,使用ssh-add将私钥交给ssh-agent保管,其他程序需要身份验证的时候可以将验证申请交给ssh-agent来完成整个认证过程。

在linux中,后台运行ssh-agent:

eval "$(ssh-agent -s)"

在Windows中,后台运行ssh-agent:

eval $(ssh-agent)

添加生成的 SSH key 到 ssh-agent

 $ ssh-add ~/.ssh/id_rsa

git for windows 的 cmd文件夹下的 start-ssh-agent.cmd 又该如何使用?

git-ssh 配置和使用 - fedl - SegmentFault 思否

Connect to your Git repos with SSH | Microsoft Docs 这篇文章中开头有如下内容(应该只是只git中ssh url发生了改变吧):

SSH URLs have changed. Old SSH URLs will continue to work through December 1, 2017. If you have already set up SSH, you will need to update your remote URLs:

  • Verify which remotes are using SSH by running git remote -v in your Git client.
  • Visit your repository on the web and select the Clone button in the upper right.
  • Select SSH and copy the new SSH URL.
  • In your Git client, run: git remote set-url <remote name, e.g. origin> <new SSH URL>. Alternatively, in Visual Studio, go to Repository Settings, and edit your remotes.

windows设置ssh-agent - CSDN博客

添加远程仓库

Command line instructions

Git global setup

git config --global user.name "Fan"
git config --global user.email "[email protected]"

Create a new repository

git clone https://gitlab.com/faner/itheima01.git
cd itheima01
touch README.md
git add README.md
git commit -m "add README"
git push -u origin master

Existing folder

cd existing_folder
git init
git remote add origin https://gitlab.com/faner/itheima01.git
git add .
git commit -m "Initial commit"
git push -u origin master

Existing Git repository

cd existing_repo
git remote rename origin old-origin
git remote add origin https://gitlab.com/faner/itheima01.git
git push -u origin --all
git push -u origin --tags

严重问题

.ssh/config line 3: Unsupported option "rsaauthentication"
Load key "C:/Users/Fan/.ssh/GitHub_rsa.pub": invalid format
[email protected]: Permission denied (publickey).
fatal: Could not read from remote repository

two different public key formats:

git - key_load_public: invalid format - Stack Overflow  two different public key formats

这里说,有两种格式的公钥,一种是 Putty 生成的,一种是 Openssh生成的,但是之前使用 git bash时是没有问题的,后来使用了 cmder 后就就出现了问题。

public key 格式可以转换。

  • OpenSSH Private Key (我的key一直就是这种格式

    ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAABJQAAAQEAhl/CNy9wI1GVdiHAJQV0CkHnMEqW7+Si9WYFi2fSBrsGcmqeb5EwgnhmTcPgtM5ptGBjUZR84nxjZ8SPmnLDiDyHDPIsmwLBHxcppY0fhRSGtWL5fT8DGm9EfXaO1QN8c31VU/IkD8niWA6NmhnE1qEqpph3DznVzIm3oMrongEjGw7sDP48ZTZp2saYVAKEEuGC1YYcQ1g20yESzo7aP70ZeHmQqI9nTyEAip3mL20+qHNsHfW8hJAchaUN8CwNQABJaOozYijiIUgdbtSTMRDYPi7fjhgB3bA9tBjh7cOyuU/c4M4D6o2mAVYdLAWMBkSoLG8Oel6TCcfpO/nElw== github-example-key
    
  • .ppk (PuTTY Private Key)

    ---- BEGIN SSH2 PUBLIC KEY ----
    Comment: "github-example-key"
    AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAABJQAAAQEAhl/CNy9wI1GVdiHAJQV0CkHnMEqW7+Si9WYF
    i2fSBrsGcmqeb5EwgnhmTcPgtM5ptGBjUZR84nxjZ8SPmnLDiDyHDPIsmwLBHxcp
    pY0fhRSGtWL5fT8DGm9EfXaO1QN8c31VU/IkD8niWA6NmHNE1qEqpph3DznVzIm3
    oMrongEjGw7sDP48ZTZp2saYVAKEEuGC1YYcQ1g20yESzo7aP70ZeHmQqI9nTyEA
    ip3mL20+qHNsHfW8hJAchaUN8CwNQABJaOozYijiIUgdbtSTMRDYPi7fjhgB3bA9
    tBjh7cOyuU/c4M4D6o2mAVYdLAWMBkSoLG8Oel6TCcfpO/nElw==
    ---- END SSH2 PUBLIC KEY ----
    

排除上面的可能性。

key_load_public: invalid format with scp or git clone on Ubuntu 15.10 - Ask Ubuntu

The public part is probably corrupted, so you can recreate it from private one using this command:

ssh-keygen -f ~/.ssh/id_rsa -y > ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub

试用了上面的方法还是不行。

SSH客户端有两种,

  • 一种为 PuTTY/Plink,
  • 一种为 OpenSSH

要求加载的SSH密钥为PuTTY格式,文件名以 .ppk 结尾

解决过程:

配置文件内容:

Host github.com
RSAAuthentication yes
# 注意下面的路径中的空格需使用引号包含,不能使用\转义,那是Linux中的做法
IdentityFile "C:/Users/Fan/.ssh/GitHub_rsa.pub"

查看调试内容:

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$ ssh -T [email protected]
/c/Users/Fan/.ssh/config line 7: Unsupported option "rsaauthentication"
/c/Users/Fan/.ssh/config line 24: Unsupported option "rsaauthentication"
/c/Users/Fan/.ssh/config line 30: Unsupported option "rsaauthentication"
/c/Users/Fan/.ssh/config line 36: Unsupported option "rsaauthentication"
debug1: Connecting to github.com [192.30.253.112] port 22.
debug1: Connection established.
debug1: identity file C:/Users/Fan/.ssh/github_rsa.pub type 0
debug1: key_load_public: No such file or directory
debug1: identity file C:/Users/Fan/.ssh/github_rsa.pub-cert type -1
debug1: Local version string SSH-2.0-OpenSSH_7.7
debug1: Remote protocol version 2.0, remote software version libssh_0.7.0
debug1: no match: libssh_0.7.0
debug1: Authenticating to github.com:22 as 'git'
debug1: SSH2_MSG_KEXINIT sent
debug1: SSH2_MSG_KEXINIT received
debug1: kex: algorithm: [email protected]
debug1: kex: host key algorithm: ssh-rsa
debug1: kex: server->client cipher: aes128-ctr MAC: hmac-sha2-256 compression: n                                                                    one
debug1: kex: client->server cipher: aes128-ctr MAC: hmac-sha2-256 compression: n                                                                    one
debug1: expecting SSH2_MSG_KEX_ECDH_REPLY
debug1: Server host key: ssh-rsa SHA256:nThbg6kXUpJWGl7E1IGOCspRomTxdCARLviKw6E5                                                                    SY8
debug1: Host 'github.com' is known and matches the RSA host key.
debug1: Found key in /c/Users/Fan/.ssh/known_hosts:5
debug1: rekey after 4294967296 blocks
debug1: SSH2_MSG_NEWKEYS sent
debug1: expecting SSH2_MSG_NEWKEYS
debug1: SSH2_MSG_NEWKEYS received
debug1: rekey after 4294967296 blocks
debug1: SSH2_MSG_SERVICE_ACCEPT received
debug1: Authentications that can continue: publickey
debug1: Next authentication method: publickey
debug1: Offering public key: RSA SHA256:GcK7ORvFzH6fzA7qPmnzBr1DOWho5cCVgIpLkh6V                                                                    Gb8 C:/Users/Fan/.ssh/github_rsa.pub
debug1: Server accepts key: pkalg ssh-rsa blen 535
Load key "C:/Users/Fan/.ssh/github_rsa.pub": invalid format
debug1: No more authentication methods to try.
[email protected]: Permission denied (publickey).

对于下面的提示,在config文件中取消rsaauthentication的选项(可以忽略该提示):

.ssh/config line 3: Unsupported option "rsaauthentication"

可以忽略该提示,不影响最终连接。

然后再查看调试内容:

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$ ssh -T -v [email protected]
OpenSSH_7.7p1, OpenSSL 1.0.2o  27 Mar 2018
debug1: Reading configuration data /c/Users/Fan/.ssh/config
debug1: /c/Users/Fan/.ssh/config line 6: Applying options for github.com
debug1: Reading configuration data /etc/ssh/ssh_config
debug1: Connecting to github.com [192.30.253.112] port 22.
debug1: Connection established.
debug1: identity file C:/Users/Fan/.ssh/github_rsa.pub type 0
debug1: key_load_public: No such file or directory
debug1: identity file C:/Users/Fan/.ssh/github_rsa.pub-cert type -1
debug1: Local version string SSH-2.0-OpenSSH_7.7
debug1: Remote protocol version 2.0, remote software version libssh_0.7.0
debug1: no match: libssh_0.7.0
debug1: Authenticating to github.com:22 as 'git'
debug1: SSH2_MSG_KEXINIT sent
debug1: SSH2_MSG_KEXINIT received
debug1: kex: algorithm: [email protected]
debug1: kex: host key algorithm: ssh-rsa
debug1: kex: server->client cipher: aes128-ctr MAC: hmac-sha2-256 compression: none
debug1: kex: client->server cipher: aes128-ctr MAC: hmac-sha2-256 compression: none
debug1: expecting SSH2_MSG_KEX_ECDH_REPLY
debug1: Server host key: ssh-rsa SHA256:nThbg6kXUpJWGl7E1IGOCspRomTxdCARLviKw6E5SY8
debug1: Host 'github.com' is known and matches the RSA host key.
debug1: Found key in /c/Users/Fan/.ssh/known_hosts:5
debug1: rekey after 4294967296 blocks
debug1: SSH2_MSG_NEWKEYS sent
debug1: expecting SSH2_MSG_NEWKEYS
debug1: SSH2_MSG_NEWKEYS received
debug1: rekey after 4294967296 blocks
debug1: SSH2_MSG_SERVICE_ACCEPT received
debug1: Authentications that can continue: publickey
debug1: Next authentication method: publickey
debug1: Offering public key: RSA SHA256:GcK7ORvFzH6fzA7qPmnzBr1DOWho5cCVgIpLkh6VGb8 C:/Users/Fan/.ssh/github_rsa.pub
debug1: Server accepts key: pkalg ssh-rsa blen 535
Load key "C:/Users/Fan/.ssh/github_rsa.pub": invalid format
debug1: No more authentication methods to try.
[email protected]: Permission denied (publickey).

执行下面两条命令:

$ ssh-agent bash
$ ssh-add "C:/Users/Fan/.ssh/github_rsa"

继续调试:

[email protected] MINGW64 ~/Documents/fandean.github.io (master)
$ ssh -T -v [email protected]
OpenSSH_7.7p1, OpenSSL 1.0.2o  27 Mar 2018
debug1: Reading configuration data /c/Users/Fan/.ssh/config
debug1: /c/Users/Fan/.ssh/config line 6: Applying options for github.com
/c/Users/Fan/.ssh/config line 7: Unsupported option "rsaauthentication"
debug1: Reading configuration data /etc/ssh/ssh_config
debug1: Connecting to github.com [192.30.253.112] port 22.
debug1: Connection established.
debug1: identity file C:/Users/Fan/.ssh/github_rsa.pub type 0
debug1: key_load_public: No such file or directory
debug1: identity file C:/Users/Fan/.ssh/github_rsa.pub-cert type -1
debug1: Local version string SSH-2.0-OpenSSH_7.7
debug1: Remote protocol version 2.0, remote software version libssh_0.7.0
debug1: no match: libssh_0.7.0
debug1: Authenticating to github.com:22 as 'git'
debug1: SSH2_MSG_KEXINIT sent
debug1: SSH2_MSG_KEXINIT received
debug1: kex: algorithm: [email protected]
debug1: kex: host key algorithm: ssh-rsa
debug1: kex: server->client cipher: aes128-ctr MAC: hmac-sha2-256 compression: none
debug1: kex: client->server cipher: aes128-ctr MAC: hmac-sha2-256 compression: none
debug1: expecting SSH2_MSG_KEX_ECDH_REPLY
debug1: Server host key: ssh-rsa SHA256:nThbg6kXUpJWGl7E1IGOCspRomTxdCARLviKw6E5SY8
debug1: Host 'github.com' is known and matches the RSA host key.
debug1: Found key in /c/Users/Fan/.ssh/known_hosts:5
debug1: rekey after 4294967296 blocks
debug1: SSH2_MSG_NEWKEYS sent
debug1: expecting SSH2_MSG_NEWKEYS
debug1: SSH2_MSG_NEWKEYS received
debug1: rekey after 4294967296 blocks
debug1: SSH2_MSG_SERVICE_ACCEPT received
debug1: Authentications that can continue: publickey
debug1: Next authentication method: publickey
debug1: Offering public key: RSA SHA256:GcK7ORvFzH6fzA7qPmnzBr1DOWho5cCVgIpLkh6VGb8 C:/Users/Fan/.ssh/github_rsa.pub
debug1: Server accepts key: pkalg ssh-rsa blen 535
debug1: Authentication succeeded (publickey).
Authenticated to github.com ([192.30.253.112]:22).
debug1: channel 0: new [client-session]
debug1: Entering interactive session.
debug1: pledge: network
debug1: client_input_channel_req: channel 0 rtype exit-status reply 0
Hi fan! You've successfully authenticated, but GitHub does not provide shell access.
debug1: channel 0: free: client-session, nchannels 1
Transferred: sent 3328, received 2032 bytes, in 0.6 seconds
Bytes per second: sent 5300.3, received 3236.2
debug1: Exit status 1

可以看到:

Hi fan! You've successfully authenticated, but GitHub does not provide shell access.

debug1: Exit status 1

连接成功。

ssh config配置文件详解

Host *
选项"Host"只对能够匹配后面字串的计算机有效。"*"表示所有的计算机。

ForwardAgent no
"ForwardAgent"设置连接是否经过验证代理(如果存在)转发给远程计算机。

ForwardX11 no
"ForwardX11"设置X11连接是否被自动重定向到安全的通道和显示集(DISPLAY set)。

RhostsAuthentication no
"RhostsAuthentication"设置是否使用基于rhosts的安全验证。

RhostsRSAAuthentication no
"RhostsRSAAuthentication"设置是否使用用RSA算法的基于rhosts的安全验证。

RSAAuthentication yes
"RSAAuthentication"设置是否使用RSA算法进行安全验证。

PasswordAuthentication yes
"PasswordAuthentication"设置是否使用口令验证。

FallBackToRsh no
"FallBackToRsh"设置如果用ssh连接出现错误是否自动使用rsh。

UseRsh no
"UseRsh"设置是否在这台计算机上使用"rlogin/rsh"。

BatchMode no
"BatchMode"如果设为"yes",passphrase/password(交互式输入口令)的提示将被禁止。当不能交互式输入口令的时候,这个选项对脚本文件和批处理任务十分有用。

CheckHostIP yes
"CheckHostIP"设置ssh是否查看连接到服务器的主机的IP地址以防止DNS欺骗。建议设置为"yes"。

StrictHostKeyChecking no
"StrictHostKeyChecking"如果设置成"yes",ssh就不会自动把计算机的密匙加入"$HOME/.ssh/known_hosts"文件,并且一旦计算机的密匙发生了变化,就拒绝连接。

IdentityFile ~/.ssh/identity
"IdentityFile"设置从哪个文件读取用户的RSA安全验证标识。

Port 22
"Port"设置连接到远程主机的端口。

Cipher blowfish
"Cipher"设置加密用的密码。

EscapeChar ~
"EscapeChar"设置escape字符。

SSH服务器使用非标准port时的解决办法

这里是对于自建的git服务

sshd使用标准的port:

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$ git remote add origin [email protected]:TestGroup/Test.git

sshd使用非标端口时的方法:

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# ssh使用非标准端口时的方法(这里是2200端口)
# 方法1 (失败)
$ git remote add origin [email protected]:2200/TestGroup/Test.git
# 方法2:使用ssh的形式;root为操作系统账号,端口与路径之间没有空格,路径为完整路径
$ git remote add origin ssh://[email protected]:2200/var/opt/gitlab/git-data/repositories/TestGroup/Test.git
# 方法3:使用http;输入该仓库用户的GitLab的用户名和密码
$ git remote add origin http://127.0.0.1:8081/TestGroup/Test.git
# 方法4:在配置文件中配置

git remote add with other SSH port

示例:

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################## 实际操作 ################
[fan 23:31:12]~/backup$ git remote add origin [email protected]:TestGroup/Test.git
[fan 23:32:24]~/backup$ git push -u origin --all
ssh: connect to host 127.0.0.1 port 22: Connection refused
fatal: Could not read from remote repository.

Please make sure you have the correct access rights
and the repository exists.

[fan 23:37:38]~/backup$ git remote add origin [email protected]:2200/TestGroup/Test.git
fatal: 远程 origin 已经存在。
[fan 00:33:38]~/backup$ git remote rm origin

-----

[fan 00:32:59]~/backup$ git remote add origin ssh://[email protected]:2200/TestGroup/Test.git
[fan 00:33:25]~/backup$ git push -u origin --all
fatal: '/TestGroup/Test.git' does not appear to be a git repository
fatal: Could not read from remote repository.

Please make sure you have the correct access rights
and the repository exists.
[fan 00:33:38]~/backup$ git remote rm origin
[fan 00:34:12]~/backup$ git remote add origin ssh://[email protected]:2200/var/opt/gitlab/git-data/repositories/TestGroup/Test.git
[fan 00:34:21]~/backup$ git push -u origin --all
对象计数中: 131, 完成.
Delta compression using up to 4 threads.
压缩对象中: 100% (129/129), 完成.
写入对象中: 100% (131/131), 1.26 MiB | 0 bytes/s, 完成.
Total 131 (delta 15), reused 0 (delta 0)
remote: GitLab: You are not allowed to upload code for this project.
To ssh://[email protected]:2200/var/opt/gitlab/git-data/repositories/TestGroup/Test.git
 ! [remote rejected] master -> master (pre-receive hook declined)
error: 无法推送一些引用到 'ssh://[email protected]:2200/var/opt/gitlab/git-data/repositories/TestGroup/Test.git'

# 莫非是我的ssh key有问题?尝试重新按照官方教程生成ssh key。还是说是下面链接中说的git版本问题?

[fan 01:05:30]~/backup$ git remote add origin http://127.0.0.1:8081/TestGroup/Test.git
[fan 01:08:25]~/backup$ git push -u origin master
Username for 'http://127.0.0.1:8081': Fan
Password for 'http://[email protected]:8081': 
对象计数中: 131, 完成.
Delta compression using up to 4 threads.
压缩对象中: 100% (129/129), 完成.
写入对象中: 100% (131/131), 1.26 MiB | 0 bytes/s, 完成.
Total 131 (delta 15), reused 0 (delta 0)
remote: Resolving deltas: 100% (15/15), done.

To http://127.0.0.1:8081/TestGroup/Test.git
 * [new branch]      master -> master
分支 master 设置为跟踪来自 origin 的远程分支 master。

remote rejected错误原因

您的鼓励是我最大的动力
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Felix
作者
Felix
如无必要,勿增实体。

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